Basic Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology

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PREFACE
I take this opportunity to present this book title Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology to student of Degrees and Diploma Courses.  The object of this text is to present the subject in matter in more concise, compact to the point and in a lucid manner.While writing this book, I have continuously kept in mind the examination requirements of students preparing for Degrees and Diploma Examinations.In order to make this volume more useful for them, complete problems solutions have been included to enable them understand steps used in solutions, involving refrigeration cycles and air conditioning loads.
Every care has been taken to make the book as self explanatory as possible.  The subject matter has amply illustrated by incorporating a good number of solved and unsolved practical refrigerating cycles. Most of these examples are taken from recent examination papers both for degree.  Diploma paper and of universities and polytechnics as welll as professional bodies to make students familiar with the type of questions usually set in these examinations.At the end of each chapter, some exercise have been added for students to solve them independently.In some exercise answers to the problems have been provided, but it is too much hoped that these are entirely free from errors.It is hoped that the book will earn appreciation from teachers/ readers and students alike.Althoug h every care has been taken to check mistakes and misprints, yet it is difficult to claim perfecting improvement of this text brought to my notice will be thankfully acknowledge and in co-operated in the next edition.

The book is comprehensive in its coverage without sacrificing the necessary theoretical as well as practical rigours. The emphasis throughout is on the application of theories and practical refrigeration cycles for both domestic and industrial refrigerators.  The book s designed as a complete course for both mechanical, chemical and aeronautical engineering in universities and polytechnics.
The book also emphasis the use of thermodynamics as an important text in refrigeration cycles.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication 
Acknowledgements
Preface
Introduction 

CHAPTER ONE 
Fundamentals of Refrigeration 
Development of Refrigeration 
How a Machine Refrigeration Operates
Definitions of Some Terms
Heat Transfer
Effect of Pressure on Evaporation Temperature
Effect of Pressure on Freezing Temperatures
Refrigerating Effect of Ice

CHAPTER TWO
Principle of Thermodynamics
Properties of Substances
Properties of Vapour

CHAPTER THREE
Heat Engine and Refrigerator
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Heat Transfer
Refrigeration and Heat Pump
The Ideal Heat Engine Cycle 
Vapour Compression Cycles 1
Application of Heat Pump Plant
Refrigeration Plant with Isentropic Efficiency 
The Carnot  Refrigeration Cycle
The Vapour Compression Cycle II
The Air Refrigeration Cycle
Comparison of Refrigeration Cycles
Reversed Carnot Cycles
Dryness Fraction
Criterion of Performance of Refrigeration cycle 
Practical Refrigeration Cycles Modified Carnot Cycle

CHAPTER FOUR
Refrigerators and Heat Pump II
Reversed Heat Engine Cycles 
Vapour Compression Cycles
Replacement of the Expansion Engine by a Throttle valve
Condition at the Compressor Inlet
Under colling of the condensed Vapour
Refrigerating Load
The Pressure Enthalpy Diagram
Compressor Type
The use of the Flash Chamber

CHAPTER FIVE
Calculations
Examples 
Problems

CHAPTER SIX
Psychometry and Air Conditioning 
Psychometric Mixtures
Specific Humidity, Relative Humidity and 
Percentage Saturation
Measurement of Relative Humidity
Psychometric Chart
Specific Enthalpy, Heat Capacity and Specific Volume and MOIST Air
Specific Heat Capacity of Most Air
Air Conditioning Systems
Summer Air Conditioning 
Air Condition System
Winter Air Conditioning 

CHAPTER SEVEN
Positive Displacement Machines
Reciproting Compressors 
The condition For Minimum work
Isothermal Efficiency 
Reciprocating Compressors Including Clearance 
Volumetric Efficiency
Multi Stage Compression 
The Ideal Inter Mediate Pressure
Energy Balance for a Two Stage Machine with inter cooler
Steady Flow Analysis
Centrifugal Compressors

CHAPTER EIGHT
Tools and Equipment
General Hand Tools
Portable Electric Drills
Specialized Hand Tools
Air Condition and Refrigeration Reversible 
Retechet Box Wrenches
Specialized Service and Installation Equipment 
Review Questions 


CHAPTER NINE
Trouble Shorting
Refrigeration Tools and Equipment Materials 

CHAPTER TEN
Hygrometry
Relative Humidity
Dew Point
The Psychrometrics
Dry Bulb Temperature DB
Moisture Content
Dry Bulb Temperature
Dry Bulb Temperature
Dry Bulb
Relative Humidity Defined
We Balls Temperature
The Psychrometric Chart
For Relative Humidity Lines
Refrigerants
Lubrication
Pouring Port
Arrangement of Components
Daltons Law and Partial Pressures
Properties of Air Psychrometry
Appendixes
References
Index 
 

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