Construction Of Orsat Gas Analyzer

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ABSTRACT
The Orsat Gas Analyzer was constructed at the project development institute (PRODA), Enugu. 
The operation involved the laboratory glass blowing which entails the heating of a glass tube. The heating •continues until the glass tube reaches its plastic state. The shape of the tube is changed or the required shape blown by pulling, bending by hand, cutting with a knife and also blown with mouth or denting the shape by the application of a suitable tool. 
The selection of the materials used in the construction was in such a way to suit the purpose. The material used for construction is borosilicate glass. 
The construction of the Orsat Gas Analyser was done to enable the understanding of gas analysis. Also, to understand the properties, characteristics and behaviour of different gases at different conditions. 
The cost of fabrication of this project is …………………………

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ii
Transmittal Letter iii
Approval Page iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgement vi
Abstract vii
Table of Contents ix

CHAPTER ONE 
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Objectives of Orsat Gas Apparatus 5



CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.0 Gas (Kinetic Theory) 6
2.1 Analysis 7
2.1.1 Analyzer 7
2.1.2 Gas Analysis   8
2.2 The Method of Gas Analysis 9
2.2.1 Instrumental Method 10
2.2.2 Absorptiometric Method 11
2.3 Gas Analyzer s 13
2.3.1 Exhaust Gas Analyzers 13
2.3.2 The Toxic Gas Detector Tube 14
2.3.3 The Fyrite (C02 Analyzers) 15
2.4 The Orsat Gas Analyzers 15
2.4.1 The Orsat Gas Analyzer with Jacket 16
2.4.2 The Orsat Gas Analyzer without Jacket 17
2.5.0 The components parts Of The Orsat Analyzer 
2.5.1 The sampling Train 20
2.5.2 The lntegrated Sample Method 21
2.6 The Glass Wool 22
2.6.1 The Glass Probe 23
2.6.2 The Squeeze Bulb (Pump) 24
2.6.3 The Manifold 25
2.6.4 The Glass Valves 26
2.70 The Absorption pipettes 26
2.7.1 The Reservoir 28
2.7.2 The Expansion Bag 29
2.7.3 The Smaller Glass Tubes . 29
2.8 Measuring Burettes With Water Jacket 30
2.9. The Levelling Bottle 32
2.9.1 The Rubber Tubes 33
2.9.2 The Rubber Stopper 34
2.9.3 The Wooden Covering 35

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Material Of Selection 38
Types Of Glasses/Properties 
3.1 The Soda Glass   39
3.2 Sodaline Glass   40

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Fabrications Generally and Fabrication Procedure 
For Orsat Gas Analyzer
4.1 Fabrication . 48
4.2 Methods 49
4.2.1 Glass Forming 49
4.2.2 Press Moulding 49
4.2.3 Blowing 50
4.2.4 Press and Blow 50
4.2.5 Blow and Mould Process 52
4.2.6 Laboratory Glass Blowing 53
4.3 The Simple Bunsen Burner 53
4.4 The Flame 54
4.5 Glass Cutting 56
4.6 Pulling a Point 57
4.7.1 Sealing Glass Tubes 58
4.8 U - Bend 59
4.8.1 T-Joint 60
4.8.2 Y-Joint 61
4.9 Fabrication Procedure For Orsat Gas Analyzer 63
4.9.1 Fabrication Of Levelling Bottle 64
4.9.2 Fabrication Of Absorption Pipette 65
4.9.3 Fabrication Of Burette 66
4.9.4 Fabrication Of Water Jacket 67
4.9.5 Fabrication Of Manifold 68



CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Cost Of Replacement   69
5.1 Over Head Cost 71
5.2 Installation Cost 72
5.3 Maintenance Cost 72
5.4 Cost of Replacement 73
5.5 Over Head Cost 73
5.6 Labour Cost 73
5.7 Material Cost 74
5.8 Draughtsmen Charge 77
5.9 Overall Costs 77

CHAPTER SIX 
6.0 Discussion 79
6.1 Conclusion 81
6.2 Recommendations 82
References 
Appendix 

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