Urban Development In Enugu Metropolis

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INTRODUCTION 
Urban development in Enugu metropolis is marked by two major urban landuse features. First, is the intensification of landuse with resultant modification of urban spatial structure within the already built-up areas of the metropolis. The second is the outward spread of the built -up areas of the metropolis into the inter lands. In Enugu metropolis, a large part of the land surface is covered by manmade structures which are often divided into two or more levels, so that there is in effect a series of superimposed landuse patterns, for example, along Ziks Avenue, retaining on the ground level administrative activities on this first floor, and residential uses on the second and higher floors. These kinds of development have given arise to complex landuse conflicts in the metropolis. These problems of urban landuses in the metropolis are largely attributed to rapid urbanization. For the purpose of appreciating landuse conflicts brought about by the rate of urbanization in Enugu metropolis, it is relevant to outline the main elements of this growth. 

Enugu was the capital of the Eastern region during the colonial era during which there was a fairly developed settlement system within the metropolis. The nature of the metropolis were predominantly farmers and craftsmen. The growth of the metropolis was largely associated with its cutralized administrative powers. Although data on the proportion of Enugu that lived during the precolonial era is not available, there is no doubt that the degree of urban population was minimal. 
Presently in Enugu metropolis various landuse activities abound; residential, industrial, transportation, commercial, institutional, educational and communication. Against this background, it can be stated that lack of adequate planning in the metropolis constitute one of the most relevant constraints to the emergence of a tolerable urban landuse pattern that is conducive to the maintenance of an acceptable urban environmental quality with the availability of basic infrastructural needs. 

LITERATURE REVIEW 
Landuse conflict is a complex concept with diverse elements. In order words, it defies precise definitions. Experts in housing, land surveying and other cognate disciplines had approached the definition of landuse conflict from their professional point of view is that it tended to observe the fundamental meaning of the concept with regards to the discipline’s background. Weiner (1939), on Estate surveyor, defined landuse conflicts as the various problems which may arise as a result of non-conforming use which are located close to each other. Weiner’s definition appears myopic in that he stressed the problem which is the by-product of conflict and not the conflict per se. Technically put, conflict as a concept is meant by a situation in a state of opposition and disagreement. This condition must be met before problems can be generated. Given this draw back in definition, we shall attempt a definition of landuse conflict for the purpose of this study. Landuse conflict for the purpose of this study. Landuse conflict refers to a situation in which a portion of land is engaged advertently or inadvertently into two or more incompatible uses which ab-imito was zoned for a particular landuse activity. For instance, conflict will arise where a portion of land is subjected to agricultural uses/residential uses or residential uses/industrial uses or institutional uses/industrial uses. 

Furthermore from the above, conflict emerges whenever two or more incompatible landuse seek to eliminate or co-exist in the same portion of land or occupy the same space or same exclusive position and/or play incompatible roles, maintain incompatible areas for achieving their purposes. This state of affairs tended to generate some problem which is herein after referred to as landuse problems. In the urban and regional planning studies, some landuse problems which can be generated as a result of landuse conflicts, include, low land values, pollutions, traffic congestion, public misance, shuns, over crowding and over utilization of available amenities. Others are congestion, inadequate circulation systems and absence of community facilities. (Onokerhoraye and Omuter, 1994). 

PHYSICAL SETTING OF THE STUDY AREA 
Enugu metropolis, the capital of Enugu state is a town founded in top of an escarpment which is part of Nsukka - Okigure cnesta (Udoh, 1977). 
The escarpment is a watershed to all streams that drained through the town, such as, river Njaba, Ogbete, idaw, Asata, Owom and Ayo denuching the area into a undulating topography. 
Enugu metropolis lies within 221 meters to 317 meters above sea level and located on latitude 70 29’E and longitude 60 25’N. It is located within the guinea savanna region. Enugu lies on the upper stretches of the cross - river plain (Michale et al, 1982). The city is surrounded by predominately rural areas with Nkanu local government to the East and South and Udi local government to the North and West. 
Enugu was once the regional headquarters of the Eastern Nigeria following the division of the country into three main regions in 1951. It was also the capital of East Central State following the evolution of twelve states in 1967. Consequently, it assumed the capital of old Anambra state after 1976 state creation. Currently, Enugu metropolis is the capital of Enugu state following the 1991 state creation. 

Enugu was founded as a result of discovered of coal in the later part of 1909 by British geological engineer prospecting for sliver (Agu, 1984). It originated as a mining centre at the eastern foot of Udi hills following coal discovery. The earliest urban settlement as on the hill top - and hence the name Enugu. following the discovery, miners from most distant areas encamped on the slopes of the hill. There were local administrators and service men. This resulted in the demand for not only administrative headquarters but for residential and other activities. This is to say that as the city was growing as a mining city, commercial, industrial and administrative areas developed. Moreso, the workers in the mining industry and other workers had to settle somewhere close for activities for which they are needed. The mine and the growing city led to the movement of people towards the scarp plain and founding of colliry quarters (now part of Ogbete) Iva, valley, Railway quarters and Ogui.     
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