The Organization Of African Unity (oau) To African Union (au) The Journey So Far

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The African Union was formed to cater for the needs and aspiration of member states amongst the various set objectives

  • Achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and the other people of Africa
  • Defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its member states
  • Accelerate the political and socio- economic integration of the continent
  • Promote and defend African common position on issues of interest to the continent and its people
  • Encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the charter of the United Nation and the check of human rights.
  • Work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent
  • To promote democratic principle and institutional popular participation and good governance and also protect human and people’s right in accordance with African charter on human and people right and other relevant human rights instrument.
  • Establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and international negotiations.
  • Promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural level as well as the integration of African economies
  • Promote cooperation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standard of African people
  • Promote peace, security, and stability on the continent. 9
        
The wish of the founders of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was largely informed by the desire of Pan-Africanist who believed that it is the only full political unity that will end the Pan-African struggle. Apart from the of lack of a common culture and language that divides African states there is more fundamental problem of lack of effective leadership in the search for unity. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page- - - - - - - - - - - i
Certification- - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement- - - - - - - - - iv
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - - vii

CHAPTER ONE
ISSUES AND REASONS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATIONS
1.1 Introduction- - - - - - - - - - 1 
1.2 Aims and objectives- - - - - - - - - 4
1.3 Significance of the study- - - - - - - - 6
1.4 Scope of study- - - - - - - - - 7
1.5 Problems of the study - - - - - - - - 7
1.6 Methodology- - - - - - - - - - 8
1.7 Literature review- - - - - - - - - 8
Notes and references - - - - - - - - 12

CHAPTER TWO
2.1 The historical origin of the Organisation of Africa Unity.- - - 15
2.2 The aims and objectives of African Union (AU)-- - - - 19
2.3   The economics achievement of OAU.- - - - - - 23
2.4 The political achievement of OAU.- - - - - - 27
2.5   Socio-Cultural achievement of OAU.- - - - - - 29
Notes and reference- - - - - - - - 37

CHAPTER THREE
FROM ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY TO AFRICAN UNION
3.1 An overview of Nigerian’s foreign policy- - - - - - 40
3.2   Nigeria and Africa’s development- - - - - - 49
3.3 Nigeria and the African Union- - - - - - - 53
3.4 The African Union and Political Stability in the continent- - - 55
3.5 The African Union and economics improvement and empowerment 
in the continent- - - - - - - - - - 61
Note and references- - - - - - - - 69

CHAPTER FOUR
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
4.1 Summary- - - - - - - - - - 74
4.2 Conclusion- - - - - - - - - - 81
Bibliography- - - - - - - - - - 88

INTRODUCTION
Regional integration is not a new idea or initiative in Africa. Along with the creation of African common market it has been fueling division of African leaders for the past 45 decade. In fact, the creation of the 0rganisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1964 reflected the awareness, by the leaders of the day that Africans strength was rooted in Pan-Africa cooperation.1 The Southern Rhodesia Custom Union was established in 1949 and the East African community in 1967(Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). 2 So far, United Africa has a long history and is the unique product of social and cultural attitude of Africa, today, the African Union (AU) is an entity that continues to work for the integration in the continent to enable it plays its rightful role in the global economy while addressing multi-faceted socio-economic and political problem. The advent of the Organization now known (AU) is described as an advent of great magnitude in the institutional evolution of the continent.3
 In a 1959, speech from Kwame Nkrumah, Ideological father of the African Union. He stated that in Ghana, we regard our independence as meaningless unless we are able to use the freedom that goes with it to help other African people to be free and independent, to liberate the entire continent of Africa from foreign dehumanization and ultimately to establish a union of African state. 4”Of all sins Africa can commit, the sins of despair will be most unforgivable……..unity will not make us rich, but it can make it difficult for –Africa and the African people to be disregarded and humiliated------My generation led Africa to political freedom. The current generation of leadership and people of Africa must pick up the flickering touch of African freedom to refuel it with their enthusiasm and determination, and carry it forward” 5 (President Nyerere, former President of Tanzania at the 40th anniversary of Ghana’s independent,1997)
The historical foundations of African Union originated in the union of African States. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was established on May 25th 1963. 6 It remained the collective voice for the continent until 2002.The intended purpose of the OAU was to promote the unity and solidarity of the African States in a time of independent movements. The OAU also aimed to ensure that all African States enjoy human right, raise the living standard of all Africans and settle arguments and dispute between member states. 7
      In the charter of the Organization of African Unity adopted in 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, African States became committed to work together to coordinate and intensify their cooperation and effort to achieve a better life for the people of Africa. The OAU Struggle to enforce its decision and its lack of an army made it difficult to intervene in civil wars and countries struggling with colonialism. The policy of non-interference in the affairs of member states also restricted the OAU in achieving its goals. Consensus was difficult to achieve within the organization. The French colonies, the Pro-capitalist and the Pro-socialist faction during the cold war, all had their agenda and made it very difficult to reach an agreement on what had to be done. Through the difficulties and struggles the OAU endured, it still provides a forum that enabled member states to adopt coordinated positions on the matter of common concern. For example, through the OAU coordinating committee for the liberation of Africa, the organization worked and succeeded in forging a consensus in support of liberation struggle and the fight against apartheid. 8                                          

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