Evaluation Of Patient Awareness To The Significance Of X-ray Exposure Indicator Light (a Case Study Of The Tertiary Hospital In Enugu)

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ABSTRACT

Radiological workers appreciate the concept of radiological protection of patient in theory due to its benefits of avoiding radiation induced genetic and somatic effects. However, they tend to neglect the practical aspect of the topic thus, leading to large number of patient entering into the radiological diagnostic room without been called, thereby interrupting the radiological diagnostic process. This work is therefore geared towards evaluating patient’s awareness to the significance of x-ray exposure indicator light in the tertiary hospital in Enugu. The survey revealed that only 72.9.4% (table 4.2) of response from patient claims that they have not aware of the significance of x-ray exposure indicator light while large percentage of 58.9% (from table 4.2) claim that hey have not been educated and it still shows the reason for high percentage of patient intrusion into the x-ray room as seen in (table 4.5). The failure of educating patient on the significance of x-ray exposure indicator light could explain into the radiology diagnostic room without been called.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - vi
List of tables - - - - - - - - vii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background Study - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Statement of Problem - - - - - - - 5
1.2 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - 5
1.3 Significance of Study - - - - - - 5
1.4 Scope of Study - - - - - - - 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - 7
2.1 Theoretical Background - - - - - - 22
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Design - - - - - - - 23
3.1 Area of Study - - - - - - - - 23              
3.2 Sample Population - - - - - -- - 24
3.3 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - 24
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis for Questionnaire - - 25
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis for the Observation - - 33
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, SUMMARY OF FINDING, CONCLUSION, LIMITATION OF THE STUDY, RECOMMENDATION, AREA OF FURTHER RESEARCH
5.0 Discussion - - - - - - - - 35
5.1 Summary of Finding - - - - - - - 36
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 37
5.3 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 37
5.4 Recommendations - - - - - - - 38
5.5 Areas of Further Research - - - - - - 38
References

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Patient Age Distribution - - - - - 26
Table 4.2: Patient Response to Knowledge of X-ray Exposure Indicator Light. - - - - - 27
Table 4.3: Response on whether the X-ray exposure indicator light was on when they entered into the Radiological diagnostic room without being called. - 28
Table 4.4 patient response on whether they have been educated on the significant of X-ray exposure indicator light. - 29
Table 4.5: Response on the radiological diagnostic rooms patient entered without being called - - - - 30
Table 4.6: Colour of light bulb that will best capture patient attention to the location of X-ray exposure indicator light. 31
Table 4.7: Response on what will best convey the X-ray warning message. - - - - - - 32

INTRODUCTION
X-Radiation (composed of x-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-ray have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30petahartz to 30 exahertz (3x1016 Hz to 3x1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100Ev to 100keV.They are shorter in wave length than UV rays and longer than gamma rays.
Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen1 discovered x-ray in 1895 in Germany and named it X-Radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation.2
X-rays with photon energies above 5-10 keV (below 0.2-01nm wavelength) are called hard X-rays, while those with lower energies are called soft X-rays.3 Due to their penetrating ability hard X-rays are widely used to image the inside of object e.g. in medical radiography and airport security. As a result, the term X-rays is usually used to refer to radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. Since the wavelengths of hard X-rays are similar to the size similar to the size of atoms they are also useful for determining crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, soft X-rays are easily absorbed in air and the attenuation length of 600 eV (approx.2nm) X-rays in water is less than 1 micrometer.4
X-ray are being performed with increasing frequency, and bearing in mind the dangers associated with X-rays interaction with biological cells when it is excessive, there is need to reduce the patient entrance dose during radiographic examinations. From evaluations it is reported that patient entrance dose rate is about 12mgy/min for conventional radiography and about 100-200mgy/min for fluoroscopy.5
An entrance dose of X-rays is the dose absorbed at the surface of the skin where the X-ray beam enters. An X-ray beam enters the body from the direction of the X-ray tube small share of the beam exist from the body on the opposite side, where it exposes the film or other image –receiver. The share of the beam which never exists from the body is absorbed as extra energy by the body’s internal organs and bones.6 An entrance skin dose can also be define as a measure of the kerma or the energy deposited in a mass of air in front of the skin, with measured unit of the grey (Gy) or milligrey (mGy).7 It can also be referred to as the those dose of radiation to which the surface of body is exposed during a radiological procedure.8 
Excessive Radiation dose affects several body organ and tissue which includes the hair follicle, brain, thyroid gland, blood system, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and the reproductive system. Radiation exposure above 200rem or higher can bring about hair loss.9 In the brain since brain cells do not reproduce, they won’t damage directly unless the exposure is 5000 rem or greater.10 Like the heart, radiation kills nerve cells and small blood vessels, and can cause seizure and immediate death.
In the thyroid are more specifically affected by exposure to different types of radiation sources. The thyroid gland is susceptible to radioactive iodine .in sufficient amount radioactive iodine can destroy all thyroid cells. By taking potassium one can reduce the effect of radioactive iodine.
0n the blood system, when a person is exposed to around 100 rems,the blood’s lymphocytes cell count will be reduced, leaving  the victim more susceptible to infection.11 This is often referred to as a mild radiation sickness. Early symptoms of radiation sickness mimic those of flu and may go unnoticed unless a blood count is done.Accordiong to data on Hiroshima and Nagaski,shows that symptoms may persists for up to 10years and may even have an increase long time risk for leukemia and lymphoma.
In the heart, intensive exposure to radioactive material at 1,000 to 5,000 rems would immediate damage to small blood vessels and probably cause heart failure and death. 
Radiation damage to the intestinal tract lining will cause nausea, bloody vomiting and diarrhea. This occurs when the victim is exposed to 200 rems or more. The radiation will begin to destroy the cells in the body that divides rapidly. These including cells, GI tract, reproductive and hair cells, and harm the DNA and RNA of surviving cells.
Because reproductive tract cells divide rapidly, these area of the body can be damage at levels as low as 200.Longtime some radiation sickness victims will become sterile.12
With the above harmful effects of radiation on biological cells-ray exposure light indicator or other warning devices or signs must be installed and posted on the entrance doors of diagnostic x-ray room and in other obvious locations so they can be seen and people know not to enter the room. Doing so could jeopardize their health. Persons not involved in the x-ray process must be kept away from the x-ray machine and having in mind of avoiding unnecessary radiation to patients, it is of paramount importance to relate to patients the significance of x-ray exposure light indicator, and the importance of avoiding intruding into the radio graphical examination room during radio graphical examination. 
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(2014, 07). Evaluation Of Patient Awareness To The Significance Of X-ray Exposure Indicator Light (a Case Study Of The Tertiary Hospital In Enugu).. ProjectStoc.com. Retrieved 07, 2014, from https://projectstoc.com/read/2499/evaluation-of-patient-awareness-to-the-significance-of-x-ray-exposure-indicator-light-a-case-study-of-the-tertiary-hospital-in-enugu-979
"Evaluation Of Patient Awareness To The Significance Of X-ray Exposure Indicator Light (a Case Study Of The Tertiary Hospital In Enugu)." ProjectStoc.com. 07 2014. 2014. 07 2014 <https://projectstoc.com/read/2499/evaluation-of-patient-awareness-to-the-significance-of-x-ray-exposure-indicator-light-a-case-study-of-the-tertiary-hospital-in-enugu-979>.
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"Evaluation Of Patient Awareness To The Significance Of X-ray Exposure Indicator Light (a Case Study Of The Tertiary Hospital In Enugu).." ProjectStoc.com. 07, 2014. Accessed 07, 2014. https://projectstoc.com/read/2499/evaluation-of-patient-awareness-to-the-significance-of-x-ray-exposure-indicator-light-a-case-study-of-the-tertiary-hospital-in-enugu-979.

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