Design And Fabrication Of Mini Copula Furnace And An Atomizer For The Production Of Powdered Metal From Waste Aluminium Cans

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ABSTRACT
This research is centered on the design and fabrication of copula furnace and atomizer for the production aluminium powder metal with the available material.0.4kg of refined coke was chosen as the basis for material and energy balance calculations and the design calculations performed from whose values are used to produce the design drawings.Mild steel was used for the internal linings of the furnace casing while other materials were selected based on functionality, durability, cost and local availability.The furnace and atomizer were assembled and the furnace inner wall of the casing was lined with refractory bricks made from a heated mixture of kaolin, clay, sawdust, and water after which the cylindrical shell was positioned.Testing was subsequently performed to evaluate the performance of the furnace and the atomizer by first gathering of the aluminum cans.The furnace was heated to 8700c and it was observed that the furnace has 36.9% efficiency which is within the acceptable value for furnace efficiencies.Atomizer produced various sizes of powder metal depending on the type of mesh used and the shape obtained was irregular in shape.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract        v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables xi
List of Figures                                                                   xii
List of Plates                                                                                                       xiii

CHAPTER ONE: 
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study 3
1.3 Problem Statement 4
1.4 Scope of  Research Project 5
1.5 Relevance of Study 5
1.6 Limitation of Study 5

CHAPTER TWO: 
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction to Aluminium and Aluminium Recycling 7
2.2 Introduction to Powder Metallurgy 8
2.2.1Historical Development 8
2.2.2 Atomization Process 9
2.2.3 Classification of Atomization process 10
2.2.4 Uses of Powder Metals 10
2.2.5 Some Common Metal Powder 11
2.3    Introduction to Atomizer 12
2.3.1 Classification of Atomizers 13
2.3.2 Atomizer Requirement 14
2.4    Introduction to Furnace 15
2.4.1 Types of Furnaces 15
2.4.2 Classification of  Furnaces 16
2.4.3 Introduction to Copula 17
2.4.4 Parts of a Copula Furnace 17
2.4.5 Zones of Copula 19
2.4.6 Copula Operations 22
2.4.7 Efficiency of Copula Furnace 26
2.4.8 Advantages and Limitations 27
2.4.9 Limitations in Copula Furnace 28
2.5   Introduction to Refractory 28
2.5.1 Refractory Definition 28
2.5.2 Classification of Refractory 29
2.5.3 Properties of Refractory 32
2.5.4 Types of Refractory 36
2.5.5 Selection of Refractory 39
2.5.6 Manufacture of Refractory 39
2.5.7 Functions and uses of Refractory 41
2.5.8 Uses of Refractories 41
2.6   Introduction to Coal 42
2.6.1 Uses of Coal 43
2.6.2 Refined Coal(Coke) 43
2.6.3 Production of Coke 44
2.6.4 Properties of Coke 44
2.6.5 Uses of Coke 45
2.6.6 Advantages of Coal over other Forms of Energy 45

CHAPTER THREE: 
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 46
3.2    The Design of Copula Furnace 47
3.2.1 Material Balance 47
3.2.2 Reaction Mechanism 48
3.2.3 Energy Balance 49
3.2.4 Enthalpy Change 50
3.2.5 Standard Heat of Reaction 51
3.3  Energy Balance for the Furnace 52
3.3.1 Combustion Chamber 52
3.3.2 Enthalpy of the Reaction 53
3.3.3 Standard Heat of Reaction 53
3.3.4 Enthalpy of Flue Gases 54
3.3.5 The Design of the Furnace 55
3.3.6 Design of the Combustion Chamber 57
3.3.7 Design of the down Section of the Furnace 58
3.4 Design of an Atomizer 62
3.5 Costing and Safety Measures 67
3.5.1 Costing 67
3.5.2 Safety Measures 69
3.6  Materials of  Constructions 70

CHAPTER FOUR: 
RESULTS, OBSERVATION AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results 79
4.2 Observations and Discussion 80
4.3 The Size of the Metal Powder produced 81
4.4 The Shape of Aluminum metal powder produced 81

CHAPTER FIVE: 
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 
5.1 Conclusion 83
5.2 Recommendations 83
REFERENCES 85
APPENDIX A 88
APPENDIX B 94
APPENDIX C 97


LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Melting point Chart of pure Compounds 33
Table 2.3 Classes of Fire Clay Brick 38
Table 3.1 Material Balance Table 49
Table 3.2 Specification Sheet for the Designed Atomizer 67
Table 3.3 Cost of Materials 68
Table 3.4 Fabrication cost 68
Table 3.5 Additional Expenses 69
Table 4.1 Results from the Copula Furnace 79


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Broad Classification of Furnace 19
Figure2.2 Copula Furnace 21
Figure 3.1 The Combustion Chamber (Materials) 48
Figure 3.2 Balance Around the combustion Chamber 52
Figure 3.3 Balance around the Furnace 55
Figure 3.4 Internal and External diameters 58
Figure 3.5 2D And 3D views of the copula Furnace 59
Figure 3.6 3D View of the Cupola Furnace Sections 60
Figure 3.7 Front View of the Cupola Furnace 61
Figure 3.8 2D Sectioned view of the Lower Section of the Atomizer 63
Figure 3.9 2D Sectioned view of the Middle Section of the Atomizer 64
Figure 3.10 2D View of the Lower Section of the Atomizer 65
Figure 3.11 3-D Section view of the Atomizer 66

LIST OF PLATES
PLATE 1           ALIEN KEY
PLATE 2           VERNIER CALIPER
PLATE 3           HAND FILES
PLATE 4          TAP WRENCH
PLATE 5          TWO WAY GRIDING MACHINE
PLATE 6           LATHE MACHINE
PLATE 7           DRILL BIT   
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(2017, 07). Design And Fabrication Of Mini Copula Furnace And An Atomizer For The Production Of Powdered Metal From Waste Aluminium Cans.. Afribary.com. Retrieved 07, 2017, from https://afribary.com/read/8637/design-and-fabrication-of-mini-copula-furnace-and-an-atomizer-for-the-production-of-powdered-metal-from-waste-aluminium-cans-6701
"Design And Fabrication Of Mini Copula Furnace And An Atomizer For The Production Of Powdered Metal From Waste Aluminium Cans." Afribary.com. 07 2017. 2017. 07 2017 <https://afribary.com/read/8637/design-and-fabrication-of-mini-copula-furnace-and-an-atomizer-for-the-production-of-powdered-metal-from-waste-aluminium-cans-6701>.
"Design And Fabrication Of Mini Copula Furnace And An Atomizer For The Production Of Powdered Metal From Waste Aluminium Cans.." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 07 2017. Web. 07 2017. <https://afribary.com/read/8637/design-and-fabrication-of-mini-copula-furnace-and-an-atomizer-for-the-production-of-powdered-metal-from-waste-aluminium-cans-6701>.
"Design And Fabrication Of Mini Copula Furnace And An Atomizer For The Production Of Powdered Metal From Waste Aluminium Cans.." Afribary.com. 07, 2017. Accessed 07, 2017. https://afribary.com/read/8637/design-and-fabrication-of-mini-copula-furnace-and-an-atomizer-for-the-production-of-powdered-metal-from-waste-aluminium-cans-6701.

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