Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Gate

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ABSTRACT
Microcontroller based automate controller is a project design of a system that is used in operating a gate automatically. The system opens the gate automatically when a human being or car is about to enter a compound or exit a compound. The system works by sensing the light rays from the head lamp of the vehicle. The light ray is sensed and signal is used in operating the gate. Different blocks of circuit are put together to ensure that the system works perfectly as desired. The blocks include; the power supply unit, the control unit, the sensor unit, and drive unit. The power supply unit powers on the entire system, it supplies appropriate dc signal to where it is needed. The supply unit is made up of a 12volts step down transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit, a filter capacitor and a voltage regulator IC. The control unit receives signal from the sensor section to control the remaining part of the system. The control section is the logical part of the system and decides the state of the entire system depending on the signal from the sensor unit. The control section carries its operation with use of a microcontroller ATMEL89S52. The sensor unit receives signals from the headlamp of the vehicle or the human being and sends signals to indicate that a human being or car is present. This is achieved with the use a light dependent resistors. The drive unit is a DC motor which carries the gate to a specific direction as indicated by the microcontroller.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page - - - - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - - -ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - -iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - -iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - - -v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - -vi
List of figures - - - - - - - - - - -x
List of tables - - - - - - - - - - -xii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - - -1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT - - - - -1
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT - - - -2
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT - - - - - - -2
1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS - - - - - - - 4
1.5 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION - - - - -4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - - - -6
2.1 INTRODUCTION - - - - - -- - - -6
2.2 REVIEW OF SENSORS -- - - - - - - -8
2.3 REVIEW OF THE ATMEL AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER - -10
2.4 REVIEW OF DOOR CONTROL - - - - - -12

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 SYSTEM ANALYSIS - - - - - - - - 14
3.1: INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - - - 14
3.2: THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT: - - - - - - - - 15
3.3: THE CONTROL SECTION: - -- - - - - - 16
3.4: THE SENSOR UNIT: - - - - - - - - - - - - -17
3.5: THE GATE DRIVE UNIT - - - - - - - - - 17
3.6: DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS USED IN THE DESIGN - 19
3.6.1: Voltage Regulators - - - - - - - - 19
3.6.2: Transistors - - - - - - - - - 21
3.6.2.1: Types of Transistor - - - - - - - 22
3.6.2.2: Transistor currents - - - - - - - - 23
3.6.3: Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) - - -- - - 26
3.6.4: Electromechanical Relay -- - - - - - - 26
3.6.5: Diodes - -- - - - - - - - - 27
3.6.6: Microcontroller unit: - - - - - - - - 30
3.6.6.1: Features of AT89S52 - - - - - - - 31
3.6.6.2: Pin description - - - - - - - - 34
3.7: SYSTEM SPECIFICATION - - - - - - - 38

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 CONSTRUCTION APPROACH, CONSTRUCTION STEPS AND
EVALUATION - - - - - - - - - - 40
4.1 CONSTRUCTION APPROACH - - - - - - 40
4.2 CONSTRUCTION - - - -- - - - - 41
4.2.1 COMPONENT TESTING - - - - - - - 42
4.2.2 COMPONENT PLACING - - - - - - - 42
4.2.3 SOLDERING - - - - - - - - - 42
4.2.4 SYSTEM TESTING - - - - - - - - 43
4.2.5 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS - -- - - - 43
4.3 TESTING EQUIPMENT - - - - - - - - 44
4.4 TESTING METHOD - -- - - - - - - 44
4.4.1 RESISTORS: - - - - - - - - - 44
4.4.2 CAPACITORS: - - - - - -- - - - 44
4.4.3 TRANSISTORS: - - - - - -- - - - 44
4.5 SYSTEM FLOWCHART - - - - - - - - 46
4.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: - - - - - - - - 47
4.6.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM EXPLANATION - - - 48
4.7 EVALUATION - - - - - - - - - 48

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 TEST RESULT, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION - -52
5.1 SYSTEM TESTING - - - - - - - - 52
5.2 SUMMARY - - - - - - - - - - 52
5.3 RECOMMENDATION - - - -- - - - - 54
5.4 CONCLUSION - -- - - - - - - - 54
REFERENCES - - -- - - - - - - - 56
APPENDIX - - - - - - - - - - 58
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(2016, 02). Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Gate.. Afribary.com. Retrieved 02, 2016, from https://afribary.com/read/7198/construction-of-a-microcontroller-based-gate-4780
"Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Gate." Afribary.com. 02 2016. 2016. 02 2016 <https://afribary.com/read/7198/construction-of-a-microcontroller-based-gate-4780>.
"Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Gate.." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 02 2016. Web. 02 2016. <https://afribary.com/read/7198/construction-of-a-microcontroller-based-gate-4780>.
"Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Gate.." Afribary.com. 02, 2016. Accessed 02, 2016. https://afribary.com/read/7198/construction-of-a-microcontroller-based-gate-4780.

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