An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Advertising In Changing Consumer Behaviour

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INTRODUCTION
 The dictionary of advertising (1993:32) defines Advertising as follows:
i. The process of calling the public attention to the availability of goods, services and causes
ii. The process of using Advertisement as a means of meeting marketing objectives.
iii. The business of profession of producing and placing advertisements .

Advertising has been with the world since the period of barter. But what is known today as modern advertising could be dated back to early 18th century, at this period manufacturers were selling impetus. They had just emerged from an era that had all kinds of inventions.
According to Assael (1990) Advertising is used to maintain buyer’s interest in order to offset competitive advertising and the tenderency of people to target. They contend that advertising familiarizes consumers with products and thereby broadens  the market for goods.
Advertising in Nigeria since it inception has always been view from its good aspect- To a great extent particularly in a developing country like Nigeria, advertising seeks to persuade buyers rather than informing them, thereby creating wants that results in distortion of natural preference patterns. According to Bayel (1997) page it is possible that our ancestor here in Nigeria practice advertising as early as the Babylonians, even though there are no trace of  such early pre-occupation. It is  known however, that long before Henry Town sand founded the First Nigeria newspaper Iwe Inturn, there was a creditable practice of traditional advertising in the word of mouth selling use of symbol, piece of cloth, signing and announcements.
The Nigeria chapter of the international Advertising Association formally received its chapter on February 27th, 1986 at the Eko Holiday inn, Victoria Island Lagos.
While launching the chapter, group captain Emmeka S. Omeruah the then Minister of information, social development: youth and sports urged the international Advertising Association members to live up to their fine objective of facilitating exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas. He also advised them to take responsible attitude towards consumers bearing in mind our cultural heritage.
Doghudge (1990) the managing director of LINTAS Advertising Agency, Lagos once said that “a firm must communicate or die” that is very well demonstrated by the fact that as soon a  child is born, he  cries s as to gain attention and be given a fair treatment. Not to “shout” about your brand but is to direct attention from potential consumers. The advertiser does not want to miss the opportunity of telling or not telling our consumers that we care fro them.
Since the ultimate of any organization is to make profit, it must  remain in business, a number of worthwhile decisions needed to be taken in area of advertising in order to avoid or minimize wasteful advertising expenditure.
Such decisions include:
1. How much should be spend for overall company advertising ie funds.
2. What message should used  ie message
3. How should the advertising be phased during the year
4. What media should be used ie media
5. What are the best methods of knowing what the advertising is accomplishing ie measurement.
Advertising is used for both business and both non-business purpose such as disseminating of government information.
Advertising business however, exceeds other uses. The end purpose of business product advertising is to create sales. Yet because advertising is only one of the marketing forces that influence purchase it is often assign a more limited role in the sales  creation process. 
Three main purpose of advertising are maintaining continue buying interest, creating awareness and inducing action as indicated by Buell 1992.
Using advertising to create awareness of a company trade name, brand or product is refereed to as brand image or brand personality advertising. Its purpose id to make consumers aware of a new product in cognizance of an older product.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page I
Dedication ii
Acknowledgement iii
Table of Contents iv
Introduction 1
Advertising Objectives 8
Types of Advertising 10
Evaluation of Advertising 14
Overview of consumer Behaviour 15
Model of Consumer Behaviour 20
The Role of Consumer Behaviour Marketing 21
The Effect of Advertising  Behaviour 23
References 25

ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE
The first step in developing  an advertising program is to set the advertising objectives. These objectives must flow prior decisions on the  target market, market positioning, and marketing mix. The marketing –positioning and marketing program.
Many specific communication and sale objectives can be assigned to advertising. Colley lists 52 possible advertising objectives in his well-known Defining advertising Goals for measured advertising results. He outlines a methods called DAGMAR (after the book’s title) for turning advertising objectives into specific measurable goals. An advertising goal (or objective) is a specific communication task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific audience in a specific period of time.
Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform, persuade, or remind. Examples of these objective are:
informative advertising – figures heavily in the pioneering stage for a product category, where the objectives is to build primary demand. Thus the yogurt industry initially had to inform consumers of yogurt’s nutritional benefits and many uses.
Persuasive advertising- This becomes important in the competitive stage, where a company’s objective is t build selective demand for a particular brand. Most advertising falls into this category. For example, Chiras Regal attempts to persuade consumers that it derives more status than any other brand of scotch whisky. Some persuasive advertising has moves into the category of comparative advertising, which seeks to established superiority of one brand through specific comparison of one or move attributes with one or more other brands in the product class. comparative advertising has been used in such product categories as deodorants, fast food, toothpastes, tires, and automobiles. In using comparative advertising, a company should make sure that it can prove its claim of superiority and that it cannot be counterattacked in an area where the other   brand is  stronger. Comparative advertising works best when it elicits cognitive and affective motivations simultaneously.
Reminder advertising- this is highly important with nature products. Expensive four-colour coca-cola ads in magazines have the purpose not of informingor persuading but of reminding people to purchase coca-cola. A related  form of advertising is reinforcement advertising, which seeks to assure current  purchasers that they have made the right choice. The choice of the advertising objectives should be based on a thorough analysis of the current marketing situation. For example. If the product class is nature, the company is the market leader, and   brand usage is low, the proper objectives should be to stimulate more brand usage. If the product class is new, the company is not the market leader, but the brand is superior to the leader, then the proper objective is to convince the market of the brands superiority
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