Assessment Of The Knowledge And Utilization Of Information And Communication Technology (ict) Among Radiography Students In South East Nigeria

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Information and communication technology (ICT) has been the most fascinating phenomena that have characterized the 21st century. The growth of these technologies has over the years being accrued to researchers in the field of science and technology. The objective of this research was to determine the knowledge and utilization of ICT among radiography students in south east Nigeria. It is a survey research which involved the population of radiography students in university of Nigeria, Enugu campus and Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. The sampling was by convenience sampling and the sample size was determined by Yaro Yamane method (1973) which resulted to 400 sample size. The data collection was by questionnaire administered randomly and analyzed with frequency and percentage table. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis in the research. Among the 400 questionnaires distributed, 380 were returned, 8 were wrongly filled and 12 were not returned. The research was analyzed to bring out the students’ knowledge, the availability of ICT to the students and the students’ utilization of ICT. The research revealed that most of the students in the research population had good knowledge of information and communication technology (ICT) and had received training. Most of their knowledge of ICT was based on Microsoft office. Almost all the Radiography students in South East Nigeria had one ICT facility or the other and their ownership increased with their level of study. However gender differences in the ownership of ICT facilities among the students were insignificant. Radiography students in University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus had more ICT facilities available to them than those in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus and these ICT facilities were of better quality in UNEC than in NAU, Nnewi Campus. Males had more intensive use of ICT internet facilities than females in the research population but there were no significant gender differences in the general utilization of ICT facilities. Most of the Radiography students in South East Nigeria use ICT facilities for class assignments and social networking/recreation.

Title Page …i
Approval Page …ii
Certification …iii
Dedication …iv
Acknowledgement …v
Table of Contents …vi
Abstract    ...   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   vii

1.1 Background of Study … 1
1.2 Statement of Problems … 5
1.3 Objective of study … 5
1.4 Significance of Study … 6
1.5 Scope of Study …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   … 7
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis … 7
1.7 Literature Review … 8

2.1 Introduction … 22
2.2 History of ICT in Nigerian Education … 22
2.3 Uses of ICT … 23
2.4 ICT Availability in Nigerian Universities … 25
2.5 ICT Education … 26
2.6 ICT Utilization among Nigeria Students … 28
2.7 Hindrances to ICT Utilization by University Students … 29

3.1 Research Design … 30
3.2 Study Population … 30
3.3 Sampling Procedure … 31
3.4 Instrumentation… … 32
3.5 Data Collection … 32
3.6 Analytical Procedure … 33

4.1 Data Analysis …   …   …   … 34
4.2 Data Presentation … 35
4.3 Test of Hypothesis … 48

5.1 Discussion … 53
5.2 Summary of Findings … 59
5.3 Recommendations … 60
5.4 Areas of Further Study … 60
5.5 Conclusion … 61
5.6 Limitations of Study … 61
APPENDIX     …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   …   … 69

Table 1:   Demographic Data …   …    35
Table 2: Students’ response to knowledge and training on ICT   …   …   … 36
Table 3: The ICT packages done by the students … 38
Table 4: Students’ mode of ICT training …   …   …   … 39
Table 5: Rating Of the Students’ ICT Knowledge … 40
Table 6:      ICT Facilities Available In the Institutions   …   …   …   …   …    42
Table 7:     The quality of ICT facilities in the institutions   …   …   …   …   … 43
Table 8:     Gender distribution of students’ ICT utilization … …   …   …   … 44
Table 9:     Students’ weekly use of ICT internet facilities in hours …   … … 45

Background of Study
A basic understanding of information and communication technology (ICT) in education is vital in keeping abreast of rapidly changing technologies. However, investments in ICT in Nigerian education have not yielded reasonable expectations compared to similar investments made in GSM communication. In educational institutions, especially higher institutions, the mode of delivery of knowledge and curriculums are not yet ICT-enhanced5. It is obvious that ICT is still in the emerging phase in the Nigerian educational system.
There are many definitions of ICT according to different authorities. The definition of ICT from is an umbrella term that includes any communication devices or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite system and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distant learning12. Also ICT encompasses a range of rapidly evolving technologies (telephone, cables, satellite, TV and radio, computer-mediated conferencing, videoconferencing) as well as digital technology (computers, information networks, World Wide Web, intranets and extranets) and software applications15. Another definition of ICT is given as: “ICTs are diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store and manage information’’15. According to Wikipedia on-line, information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information, store information and transmit the information as necessary. 
Knowledge of ICT among students no doubt plays an important role in developing a nation. The knowledge, skills and confidence with computer technologies are assets for those who want to enter into the competitive market. Furthermore, with the increasing use of ICT in education all over the world, new skills and competences among the students are necessary for them to learn effectively. Students who are not well exposed to computers and the internet technology are likely to get further behind their peers who did have such exposure9. They will potentially miss out the 70% of jobs which require moderate or high level of computer and eventually end up in the 10% low-pay jobs that do not require technical knowledge9. Although with students’ increasing access to personal computers (PCs) and the internet than ever before, there are assumptions that the computer literacy training provided by tertiary institutions may become unnecessary. So, with increasing use of ICT in schools, it becomes imperative that students should be equipped with digital literacy competencies in order to exploit information resources that the electronic age engenders25.
The utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among students of tertiary institutions simply involves the full integration of ICT in the academic and social activities of the students. This involves the use of ICT in literature search, assignments, studies, social networking, e-mail and so on. However, the level of ICT usage varies significantly from different institutions and from different students. Certainly, the importance of the utilization of ICT among students in tertiary institutions cannot be over emphasized considering that it increases the students’ ability to embrace the rapidly changing technology and keeps them aware of innovations and inventions in their field of study. ICT utilization remains paramount, if a student must develop his or her technological competencies and remain relevant in her field of study, as well as compete favorably in any global setting. The key thing is not in ICT itself, but in understanding ICT and effectively employing it in learning and research. The utilization of the internet and other forms of information technology system puts the student on the driving seat on the highway of learning. Learning is personalized by the student and the geographical barriers to learning are removed. 
Several authorities have called for the establishment of different ICT projects (wireless LAN, e-library, cyber cafés etc.) and e-learning programs in the various institutions of higher learning in Nigeria so as to offset the cost of using ICT facilities by students and increase its availability. However, government has made frantic effort to infuse information technology in all its sectors including the education sector. This was brought to limelight when Nigeria started implementing its ICT policy in April 2001 after the Federal Executive Council approved it by establishing the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), the implementing body. The policy empowers NITDA to enter into strategic alliance and joint ventures and to collaborate with the private sector to realize the specifics of the country’s vision of, “making Nigeria an IT capable in Africa and a key player in the information society by the year 2005 through using IT as an engine for sustainable development and global competitiveness”(5). This vision is yet to be fulfilled.
Some of the Nigeria’s ICT policy includes:
To empower youths with ICT and prepare them for global competitiveness.
To integrate ICT into the mainstream of educational training.
To create ICT awareness and ensure universal access in promoting ICT diffusion in all sectors of national life.     
However, this research is triggered by the fact that the level of knowledge and utilization of ICT among Nigerian students needs to be assessed; hence the researchers study of South-Eastern Radiography students as a case study. This work will also give an insight into the availability of some ICT equipment in University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus and in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus as well as the individual ownership of ICT facilities among the Radiography students.

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