Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Gram Negative Bacteria In The Urine Of Caritas University Students

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ABSTRACT.
In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and cultured in blood agar and Macckonkey agar. Disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Of the 60 urine samples 48 yielded significant growth with a prevalence rate of 80%. It was observed that females were more infected than the males with a prevalence rate of 56.70% and 43.30% respectively under the ages of 18-25yrs. Escherichia coli was the most predominant. The isolates were very sensitive to Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin and Ofloxacin which were the (most sensitive) and the most resistant were Tetracycline, Cortrimozol, Cephalexin and Ampicillin. Therefore, Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin, Ofloxacin were strongly recommended for the treatment of UTI as indicated in the study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Tables of contents
List of tables

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 Aims and objectives of the study--------------------------------- 3

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review-----------------------------------------------------4
2.1 Microorganisms found in urine and their etiology--------------4
2.1.1 Bacteria--------------------------------------------------------------- 4
2.1.2 Viruses----------------------------------------------------------------5
2.1.3 Fungi-------------------------------------------------------------------6
2.1.4 Protozoa--------------------------------------------------------------6
2.2.1 Entry of bacteria into the urinary tract----------------------------7
2.2.2 Routes of bacteria infection-----------------------------------------7
2.2.3 Symptoms of UTI----------------------------------------------------8
2.2.4 Diagnosis--------------------------------------------------------------9
2.2.5 Treatment-------------------------------------------------------------10
2.2.5.1 Aims of treatment of UTI------------------------------------------10
2.2.5.2 Future strategies in treatment of bacteria/UTI-------------------11
2.2.6 Prevention and control----------------------------------------------12
2.3.0 Antimicrobial resistance--------------------------------------------12
2.3.1 Mechanisms of drug resistance------------------------------------14
2.3.1.1 Drug- inactivating enzyme------------------------------------------14
2.3.1.2 Alteration in the target molecule-----------------------------------14
2.3.1.3 Decrease uptake of the drugs---------------------------------------14
2.3.1.4 Increased elimination of the drugs---------------------------------15
2.3.2 Conditions influencing the effectiveness of drugs--------------15
2.3.2.1 Population size----------------------------------------------------- 16
2.3.2.2 Population composition--------------------------------------------16
2.3.2.3 Concentration and intensity of antimicrobial agent------------- 16
2.3.2.4 Duration of exposure------------------------------------------------17
2.3.2.5 Temperature----------------------------------------------------------17
2.3.3 Actions of antimicrobial drugs-------------------------------------17
2.3.3.1 Inhibition of cell synthesis----------------------------- -----------17
2.3.3.2 Inhibition of cell membrane-------------------------------------- 18
2.3.3.3 Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis----------------------------- 18
2.3.3.4 Inhibition of essential metabolites-------------------------------18

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and methods-------------------------------------------- 19
3.1 Sample collection ------------------------------------------------- 19
3.1.2 Antimicrobial susceptibility test----------------------------------20
3.1.3 Urinalysis test--------------------------------------------------------21
3.2 Gram staining-------------------------------------------------------- 21
3.3 Biochemical test-----------------------------------------------------22
3.3.1 Catalase test---------------------------------------------------------- 22
3.3.2 Coagulase test-------------------------------------------------------- 23
3.3.3 Motility test---------------------------------------------------------- 23
3.3.4 Methyl test----------------------------------------------------------- 24
3.3.5 Urease test------------------------------------------------------------ 25
3.3.6 Indole test------------------------------------------------------------ 25
3.3.7 Citrate utilization test----------------------------------------------- 26

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result ----------------------------------------------------------------- 27

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion------------------------------------------------------------ 31
5.2 Conclusion----------------------------------------------------------- 32
5.3 Recommendation----------------------------------------------------33
References
Appendix I
Appendix II
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(2016, 01). Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Gram Negative Bacteria In The Urine Of Caritas University Students.. ProjectStoc.com. Retrieved 01, 2016, from https://projectstoc.com/read/7121/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-urine-of-caritas-university-students-2905
"Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Gram Negative Bacteria In The Urine Of Caritas University Students." ProjectStoc.com. 01 2016. 2016. 01 2016 <https://projectstoc.com/read/7121/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-urine-of-caritas-university-students-2905>.
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"Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Gram Negative Bacteria In The Urine Of Caritas University Students.." ProjectStoc.com. 01, 2016. Accessed 01, 2016. https://projectstoc.com/read/7121/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-urine-of-caritas-university-students-2905.

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