Comparative Analysis Of Radiation Protection Measures In Government Owned Hospitals And Private Diagnostic Centers In Enugu

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This research work tends to assess “Comparative Analysis of Radiation Protection Measures in Government Owned Hospital and private Diagnostic Centers in Enugu”. The objectives of this research study includes: to investigate the effectiveness of radiation shielding by both government hospitals and private diagnostic centers while using it in medical practice. To examine the extent of exposure of radiation by government hospitals and private diagnostic centers. The researcher made use of both primary and secondary sources of data collection in sourcing information necessary for the research study. The data collected was analyzed with the aid of simple tables and percentage, while the hypotheses were tested with chi square. The summary of findings made for the purpose of this research work includes the following: radiation shielding by both government hospitals and private diagnostic centers is effective. There are differences and similarities between the radiation protection measures adopted by government hospitals and private diagnostic centers. The researcher therefore recommends that: both government hospitals and private diagnostic centers should adopt modern and effective radiation equipments to further enhance their radiation shielding. These hospitals should adopt effective protective radiation measures to prevent complications in their radiation practices. In conclusion, both government hospitals and private diagnostic centers have been able to practice effective radiation protection administration with their patients and staff.   


Title Page - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vi

1.1 Background of the study - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - 5
1.3 Objectives of the study - - - - - 6
1.4 Research Questions - - - - 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses - - - - - 8
1.6 Significance of the study - - - - 9
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study - - 10
2.1 Principles of Radiation Protection - - - 12
2.2 Types of Radiation - - - - - 15
2.3 Radiation protection instruments - - 19
2.4 Nature of Exposure - - - - - 21
2.5 Radiation effects - - - - - - 24
3.1 Research design - - - - - - - 31
3.2 Sources of Data - - - - - - - 31
3.3.1 Primary Sources of Data - - - - 31
3.3.2 Secondary Sources of Data - - - - 31  
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - 31
3.4 Sample Size Determination - - - - 32
3.5 Instrumentation - - - - - 33
3.6 Sampling Techniques - - - - - 34
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Measuring 
Instrument - - - - - - - 34
3.8 Method of Data Analysis - - - - 35
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - - 37
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis - - - - - 48
5.1 Summary of findings - - - - 56
5.2 Recommendations - - - - - - 56
5.3 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 57
References - - - - - - - 58
Appendix - - - - - - - 60
Questionnaire - - - - - - 61


According to Thomas, Edison and William J., the word «radiation» (translated from Latin as «radiance») is used to signify an energy, which radiates and spreads as waves and particles1. While there are numerous types of radiation (visible light, ultraviolet radiation, heat (infra-red) rays and radio-waves), the word «radiation» is most often used to signify «ionizing» radiation.
Radiation is defined as «ionizing» due to its capability to cause atom/ molecule ionization (their splitting into negatively and positively charged particles) in a substance.
Electromagnetic ionizing radiation according to ICRP, comprises roentgen rays as well as gamma rays emitted by radioactive elements2. By nature, radio-waves, visible light and ultraviolet rays are also electromagnetic radiation, though their energy is insufficient for ionization. The rest of ionizing radiation is represented by particles. For instance, beta particles are electrons, alpha particles are helium nucleuses and neutrons are uncharged particles.
Penetrability is one of the most important characteristics of various kinds of radiation. The higher the density of the particles’ energy transfer, the quicker the particles lose energy and cease to move. Such particles, for example, alpha rays, cannot penetrate deep into the material. Therefore, a sheet of paper is enough to protect oneself from them. Gamma and roentgen rays are the most penetrative, thus explaining the large number of protective shielding in an X-ray room.
The term «dose» is used to quantify a radiation impact. In assessing the health effects of radiation, a radiation dose is the most important characteristic.
The term «exposure dose» is used for radiation characteristics. Ionizing radiation causes an ionization effect in the air. The exposure dose shows how many ions occur in a certain airborne volume. For many years, a miscellaneous unit, roentgen (R), indicating a number of ions formed in 1 sm3 of the air, has been used for these purposes. Though the unit is presently outside the list of dosimeter indices, in practice it is still widely used.
All types of radiation impact living organisms by transferring their energy to them. The absorbed dose is an ionizing radiation energy transferred to a substance (for instance, the human body). While the absorbed dose is measured in Grays (Gy), a miscellaneous unit rad (1 Gy = 100 rad) is sometimes used. These units show an amount of energy absorbed in a unit of the substance mass.
Various kinds of radiation affect living organisms differently. At one and the same absorbed doses, neutron radiation would have effects 10 times and alpha radiation – 20 times more severe than roentgen radiation. The term «equivalent dose» takes into account the factor. The equivalent dose unit is Sievert (Sv), the former unit being Rem (1 Sv = 100 Rem).
Both scientific and technological progress has created an environment in which both natural and manmade emergencies may occur. Since it is impossible to exclude the potential for radiation accidents completely, awareness of emergency procedures, realistic prediction of probable consequences, and adequate protective measures are critical to preventing or at least mitigating possible damage.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is the science and practice of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.
Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine and can present a significant health hazard. It causes microscopic damage to living tissue, which can result in skin burns and radiation sickness at high exposures, and statistically elevated risks of cancer at low exposures
Radiation protection at workplaces starts with structures, components and systems which are designed to optimize the staff safety, includes an adequate use of radiation protection aids, and is rounded off by appropriate organizational measures.
In government hospitals in Enugu state film badges, thermoluminiscent dosimeters and pocket ionization dosimeters are the recommended radiation measuring devices for use by radiation workers to monitor received radiation dose. Every worker is expected to wear his/her personal dosimeter always while working. The dosimeter readings are kept as records for every staff for the purpose of evaluating their radiation history and possible risks involved. The records help in improving radiation protection practices in clinical settings.
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(2014, 07). Comparative Analysis Of Radiation Protection Measures In Government Owned Hospitals And Private Diagnostic Centers In Enugu.. Retrieved 07, 2014, from
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"Comparative Analysis Of Radiation Protection Measures In Government Owned Hospitals And Private Diagnostic Centers In Enugu..", 07 2014. Web. 07 2014. <>.
"Comparative Analysis Of Radiation Protection Measures In Government Owned Hospitals And Private Diagnostic Centers In Enugu.." 07, 2014. Accessed 07, 2014.

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